In Situ

Understanding XRM Technology
In Situ
In Situ & 4D Science: Observe and Quantify Evolution


If there’s one thing we know, it’s that everything changes with time. ZEISS X-ray microscopes (XRM) let you observe microstructure and quantify evolution in 3D, adding the fourth dimension of time.

In situ studies quantify the impact of stimuli on 3D microstructure in native or user-defined conditions. From mechanical materials testing to carbon sequestration investigations, innovative ZEISS solutions help you characterize and quantify the evolution of 3D microstructure using a broad range of in situ research and discovery.

Maximize Sample Value “Over Time”

Non-destructive imaging promotes in situ and 4D “over time” studies by extending the use of your valuable samples. ZEISS has emerged as the industry’s clear in situ leader accommodating the widest variety of rigs, from high pressure flow cells to tension, compression and thermal stages.



Optimize Your In Situ / 4D Studies

ZEISS innovations optimize your 4D / in situ studies with industry-best spatial resolution and image contrast, and a unique suite of capabilities that improve upon conventional micro-CT:

  • Wide Range of Sample Sizes: ZEISS offers the only X-ray solution able to maintain submicron resolution within large chambers, supporting robust stages with load capacities up to 15 kg.
  • Resolution at a Distance (RaaD) Architecture: Patented detector system and dual magnification capabilities reduce dependence on geometric magnification enabling submicron imaging of large samples (100 mm in diameter) across the large working distances encountered with in situ chambers.
  • Optional In Situ Interface Kit contains mechanical integration kit, robust cabling guide, facilities feed-throughs, recipe-based software to simplify operation from within the Xradia Versa interface.
  • Innovative Dual Scan Contrast Visualizer (DSCoVer) allows flexible side-by-side tuning of two distinct tomographies for features normally indistinguishable within a single scan.
  • Automated Filter Changer enhances workflow efficiency.

Applications and Techniques

Conduct in situ studies at submicron resolution in 3D to advance exploration and discovery

Analyze samples in situ using ZEISS solutions to characterize performance under varying environmental and operating conditions and measure critical microstructural variations—pore size, crack propagation, etc. Leverage 3D XRM in materials science, energy research, and other leading-edge studies to evaluate the impact of:

  • Tensile or compressive stress
  • Pressure
  • Temperature
  • Chemical environment
  • Electrical bias
  • Gas or fluid flow

4D microstructural evolution: See the effects of environmental, stressed or real operating conditions on microstructure over time. By repeatedly imaging samples, you’ll observe developments critical to material performance such as crack propagation, corrosion, grain growth, etc.

Semiconductor failure analysis (FA): Inspect intact chips and components to reveal weak interfaces under thermal stresses that may crack or deform under heat during operation.

Iteration between physical experiments and computational models: Samples with complex 3D pore pathways may undergo structural change as they become permeated by fluid or gas, or experience temperature and compression changes. Evolution can be correlated and iterated with finite element analysis models for 3D microstructure and even external stress or flow models.

In operando device studies: Understand aging and failure mechanisms to improve production processes for batteries and fuel cells during energy conversion, semiconductor packages under electrical bias, and more.