Metals & Alloys

Metals and Alloys

Understanding volumetric changes, such as solid deformation, void evolution, and 3D crack propagation are fundamental to understanding how metals form, deform, and perform. In structural metals, damage can occur in a complex evolving process. Defect nucleation and growth may lead to the ultimate failure of a material. What’s even more important is how metals and alloys will perform or even fail under real environments of mechanical stress or harsh corrosion. ZEISS X-ray microscopy (XRM) provides quantitative non-destructive 3D tomography to understand the metal building blocks formed at the foundry or cracks forming in an ocean pipeline, and are the first and only to push laboratory spatial resolution well into sub-micron and nanoscale ranges. Combining 3D XRM imaging with in situ conditions leads to a powerful method for 4D predictive experiments and computational alloy design.

Characterization and Analysis

  • Visualize and quantify 3D defects such as cracks or voids in metals, non-destructively from the mesoscale to the nanoscale also under in situ environments (load, temperature, etc.)
  • Investigate multi-scale 3D structure (submicron Xradia Versa and nanoscale Xradia Ultra X-ray microscopes) of eutectic Al-Cu alloys and image dendritic solidification in 3D as a function of cooling rate
  • Characterize and design light metals for next generation of automotive alloys from having realistic 3D microstructure as computational input
  • Study corrosion mechanisms in austenitic stainless steel, observing competition between pitting corrosion and inter-granular corrosion
  • Design cellular metals with advanced pore morphology foam elements for applications as heat exchangers or catalysts
  • Observe subsurface stress corrosion crack interactions in a pipeline low carbon steel
  • Correlate 2D, 3D and 4D, non-destructively – complement 2D imaging, as well as electron backscattering diffraction (EBSD) or EDS information with 3D imaging.



ZEISS Xradia 520 Versa

High Resolution,In Situ



ZEISS Xradia 810 Ultra

ZEISS Xradia 810 Ultra
Nanoscale X-ray Imaging:
Extending the reach and value of 3D microscopy


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fuel cells, lithium-ion battery, super capacitors, catalysts, ceramics, charge, discharge, hydrogen storage media, photocatalysts, electrolyte, solid state, capacity measurement, thermodynamics, digital volume correlation, electrochemical performance